The First Minister has already pledged to give the Scottish Parliament a vote on Brexit
The Supreme Court ruled that MPs must get a vote before the UK Government starts the Brexit process but said Holyrood and the other devolved parliaments need not be consulted.
Although the SNP had hoped to frustrate Theresa May's exit timetable, the country's top judge made it clear the Nationalists "do not have a veto over the UK's decision to withdraw from the EU".
The First Minister responded by saying another vote on separation "must" be held with one leading SNP MP predicting a poll in the autumn of next year.
It is becoming clearer by the day that Scotland's voice is simply not being heard or listened to within the UK
Ms Sturgeon said: "It is becoming clearer by the day that Scotland's voice is simply not being heard or listened to within the UK.
"The claims about Scotland being an equal partner are being exposed as nothing more than empty rhetoric and the very foundations of the devolution settlement that are supposed to protect our interests – such as the statutory embedding of the Sewel Convention – are being shown to be worthless."
She added: "This raises fundamental issues above and beyond that of EU membership. Is Scotland content for our future to be dictated by an increasingly right-wing Westminster government with just one MP here – or is it better that we take our future into our own hands?
"It is becoming ever clearer that this is a choice that Scotland must make."
The First Minister has already pledged to give the Scottish Parliament a vote on Brexit, although yesterday's ruling means it will now be a purely symbolic gesture.
The 11 justices – including two Scots, Lord Hodge and Lord Reed – were unanimous in saying that politicians in Edinburgh, Cardiff and Belfast need not be consulted.
Supreme Court President Lord Neuberger said: "The devolved legislatures do not have a veto on the UK's decision to withdraw from the EU."
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Ms Stugeon believes that Scotland's voice is not being heard or listened to within the UK
Lord Advocate, James Wolffe QC, had based the Scottish Government's legal argument the Sewel Convention, which states that Westminster cannot pass laws relating to devolved matters without Holyrood's consent.
However, the justices agreed it was not a "legally enforceable obligation" as it is a "political constraint" and therefore not within the remit of the courts.
Scottish Conservative leader Ruth Davidson called for the SNP to stop using "diversionary tactics" and get behind the attempt to get the right Brexit deal for the whole of the UK.
She said: "The SNP tried to use this hearing to hold the rest of the UK to ransom. It has comprehensively failed to do so.
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Nicola Sturgeon, Leader of Scottish National Party and First Minister of Scotland
"All parties should now respect the ruling that the court has given.
"Yet typically, Nicola Sturgeon has decided to ignore it by stating – even before the verdict was in – that she would still seek a separate vote at Holyrood."
Ms Davidson added: "The Scottish Conservatives will have no truck with yet more SNP stunts on Brexit.
"Whatever side people were on last year, Scotland wants to get on with the negotiations so we can start to leave the uncertainty of the last few years behind us.
Ms Sturgeon stated that there is a choice made
"We have all had enough of the nationalists using every diversionary tactic they can to try to use Brexit to manufacture a case for separation."
Western Isles MP Angus MacNeil told BBC Radio 5 Live the ruling had given Ms Sturgeon a mandate for another referendum, which he believes is likely to be held in autumn 2018.
Scottish Labour leader Kezia Dugdale made it clear her party would vote against any attempt to push through another Referendum Bill at Holyrood.
Ms Dugdale said: "We are divided enough already. That's why there will be no support from Scottish Labour for any SNP plan for a second independence referendum."
Ms Sturgeon stated that there are issues above and beyond that of EU membership being raised
However, Scottish Green co-convener Patrick Harvie suggested the party's six MSPs would back another vote on breaking up Britain – giving the SNP a slim majority.
He said: "It is hard to see any other option than putting the choice back in the hands of voters in Scotland, giving people the choice of an independent future in Europe, and rejecting the angry and isolated Britain the Tories are planning."
Scottish Secretary David Mundell added: "Scotland's voice is being heard clearly throughout the whole process – through the 59 MPs that represent Scotland in the UK Parliament, the Joint Ministerial Committee process, our close working with the Scottish
Government and the sustained engagement we have had across Scotland since the vote to leave the EU. "We want the SNP to take the uncertainty of a second referendum off the table and come together with us as we move forward – because that is how we will get the best possible deal for Scotland and the whole of the UK as we leave the EU.