Members of Holyrood's European Committee says talks with be focused on what can be done to mitigate the impact of Brexit on Scotland's economy and wider society.
The MSPs are expected to meet with senior German MEP David McAllister, who is vice president of the European People's Party in the European Parliament, and Danuta Hubner, the chairman of the parliament's Constitutional Affairs Committee.
Prime Minister Theresa May has made clear the UK will leave the single market when it leaves the EU.
Scotland has sent MSPs to Brussels to build bridges with the EU
Our visit to Brussels is an important opportunity to gauge the level of support amongst key European figures
But SNP ministers have been pressing for a separate deal which could allow Scotland to remain part of the trading bloc.
Joan McAlpine, the convener of the Culture, Tourism, Europe and External Relations Committee, said: "The Prime Minister last week indicated that the UK is heading for a 'hard Brexit'.
"Evidence taken by the committee shows there is a great deal of concern in Scotland about what that will mean for people, organisations and sectors right across the country.
"As Brexit gets closer – article 50 is expected to be invoked in the next two months – it is vital that we explore all the ramifications of this as well as every possible avenue that helps Scotland retain as close a relationship with the EU and its single market as possible.
“62 per cent of people in Scotland voted to stay in the EU, so our visit to Brussels is an important opportunity to gauge the level of support amongst key European figures, like David McAllister and the European Parliament's Constitutional Affairs Committee for Scotland retaining some form of connection to the EU and the single market."
Deputy convener Lewis Macdonald said: "We're moving into a crucial phase in the run up to Article 50 being triggered, and these meetings will help us understand the implications of Brexit for Scotland on major issues such as citizenship, the economy and trade."
Joan McAlpine said the Brussels trip is an important opportunity for Scotland
It comes as First Minister Nicola Sturgeon pledged MSPs will be given the chance to vote on the triggering of Article 50, which will begin the formal Brexit talks.
Supreme Court judges will decide whether the Prime Minister to ask MPs and the devolved governments of Northern Ireland and Scotland before triggering Article 50 of the Lisbon Treaty this week.
Ms Sturgeon said she would ensure Holyrood had its say regardless of the Supreme Court ruling.
German MEP David McAllister will meet with MSPs
MSPs will meet with Danuta Hubner
Writing in the Daily Record, Ms Sturgeon said: "It's getting hard not to feel like the PM has her fingers in her ears when it comes to Scotland.
"This isn't some academic debate – removing us from the largest single market in the world would be devastating for people's jobs and living standards. But that seems to be of little concern to the Tories."
Theresa May's 12 point Brexit plan
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Continued cooperation with the EU to tackle terrorism and international crime.
She added: "No matter what the court decides, I want to make this crystal clear – I intend to make sure the Scottish Parliament has the chance to vote on the question of triggering Article 50.
"If the UK Government don't start showing Scotland some respect, I'll make sure that people across Scotland have the chance to choose our own future before the Tories drag us off an economic cliff-edge."