Greig Laidlaw got injured during the first half of Scotland's Six Nations clash with France
Laidlaw was replaced by 23-year-old Ali Price just before half-time with Scotland trailing 13-5 after his foot got trapped in a tackle.
The Gloucester scrum-half did not initially appear to be seriously injured but reappeared before half-time with crutches.
The 31-year-old was also wearing a so-called "moon boot" to protect his ankle, sparking fears that he could be facing weeks or even months on the sideline.
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Laidlaw has played more than 50 times for Scotland and now captains the side as well as taking on penalties and conversions from the kicking tee.
He is approaching 600 points for his country and a serious injury would be a massive blow to Scotland's Six Nations chances.
Greig Laidlaw kicked the winning points for Scotland against Ireland a week ago
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His withdrawal saw fly-half Finn Russell take over the kicking duties but he was able to slot two penalties within the first 10 minutes after Laidlaw's injury.
Laidlaw will likely be sent for a scan next week but he will have two weeks to recover ahead of Scotland's next Six Nations fixture when they face Wales at Murrayfield on February 25.
But Laidlaw's direct replacement Price quickly blotted his copybook by giving away a penalty for shoving Camille Lopez.
Nevertheless, he was backed by former Scottish international Andy Nicol to excel in the absence of his skipper.
"Laidlaw has been the go-to player for Vern Cotter for so long," said Nicol.
"His point-scoring has been exemplary and played most games.
"This is a massive baptism for Ali Price but he's been on fire for Glasgow.
"He's hugely talented."