The Russian leader said Moscow had received intelligence the US was preparing attacks on southern Damascus suburbs.
He then issued a warning to the West, saying he would not tolerate criticism of his role in Syria as G7 nations issued warned him over his support for al-Assad.
When asked whether he expected more US missile strikes on Syria, he said: "We have information that a similar provocation is being prepared in other parts of Syria including in the southern Damascus suburbs where they are planning to again plant some substance and accuse the Syrian authorities of using chemical weapons."
Putin has said he will not tolerate Western criticism
Countries that support and oppose the missile strikes in Syria
Mon, April 10, 2017
European countries have been broadly supportive so far as President Trump ordered missile strikes against a Syrian airfield from which a deadly chemical weapons attack was launched
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SYRIA OPPOSES: President Bashar al-Assad's office denounced the U.S. strike as 'reckless, irresponsible behavior.'
We have information that a similar provocation is being prepared in other parts of Syria including in the southern Damascus suburbs
He did not offer any proof for that assertion.
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President Vladimir Putin said he hoped that attitudes would eventually soften.
He also said US airstrikes in Syria reminded him of weapons of mass destruction claims following the 2003 invasion of Iraq.
Russia has defended the Syrian government, a staunch ally, against US allegations it was behind the nerve gas attack in Syria's Idlib province last week which killed scores, saying there is no evidence to underpin such an allegation.
Mr Putin said Russia would be urgently asking the global chemical weapons watchdog – the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons – to investigate the incident.
The President was speaking hours before US Secretary of State Rex Tillerson was due to arrive in Moscow for talks with Russia's foreign minister who last week denounced US missile strike on a Syrian air base as illegal.
Speaking after Mr Tillerson said he hoped Russia would conclude it was wrong to align itself with the Syrian government.
Boris Johnson has pushed for sanctions against Syria after chemical weapons attack
Mr Putin's spokesman said there were no scheduled plans for Mr Putin to meet Mr Tillerson on Wednesday, but Russian media have cited unnamed sources as saying that such a meeting will happen.
It comes as Boris Johnson called for targeted sanctions against Syria and Russian diplomats until Assad is ousted.
The Foreign Secretary said: "The regime of the Assad family is coming to an end. What happened last week was a chemical weapons attack by Assad on his own people.
"It seems approproate for ecominic and individual sanctions on the basis of that."
Italian foreign minister Angelino Alfano took a diplomatic approach
But sanctions against Russia, which has been propping up Bashar al-Assad's regime for some time now, and Syria, will not be implemented until a thorough investiagtion into the chemical weapons attack on the rebel held area of Khan Sheikhun has taken place.
While, US Secretary of State Rex Tillerson told Mr Putin that he hoped for a joint G7 position against Assad and expected support from Middle Eastern allies in the wake of the deplorable chemical gas attack that killed 87 people a week ago.