A survey of more than 40,000 police officers in England and Wales found that almost four in ten said they had been assaulted in the last year.
The research by the National Police Chiefs Council (NPCC) also found 88% of officers said they had been assaulted during their career.
A third of officers said they were unhappy with the personal safety training they received.
NPCC chairman Martin Hewitt said he was shocked by the scale of the assaults.
Police chiefs are calling for a new offence of targeting police officers with a vehicle, as well as for spitting and hate crimes to be considered as aggravating factors when suspects are brought to court.
Coughing and spitting incidents during the pandemic, protests and illegal raves have driven a rise in attacks in recent months, with provisional data showing attacks up 24% year-on-year in the four weeks to 7 June.
In 2018-19, there were 328 assaults per 1,000 constables, up from 284 per 1,000 the previous year.
Che Donald, vice-chairman of the Police Federation of England and Wales, said officers and the majority of the public were “appalled by the atrocious levels of violence colleagues have faced recently” and police chiefs must take “swift action”.