On Sunday night, a police officer was injured in a gun attack in north Belfast with him later described as being in a stable condition in hospital.
But Labour leader Mr Corbyn, prior to his first question to Theresa May at Prime Minister's Questions, told the House of Commons: "I join the Prime Minister in expressing condolences, I'm sure of the whole House, to the family of the police officer who lost his life over the weekend in Northern Ireland."
Mr Corbyn was later reminded by Democratic Unionist Party Nigel Dodds that the police officer was still alive.
He said: "I join the Prime Minister in wishing a speedy recovery to the police officer who was shot and injured in my constituency of North Belfast on Sunday night.
"Thankfully he was not killed but that was not the intention of the terrorist of course."
Police Federation of Northern Ireland (PFNI) chairman Mark Lindsay reacted angrily to Mr Corbyn’s blunder and demanded the Labour leader apologise.
He said: “Frankly, I’m appalled that the Leader of Her Majesty’s Opposition should get this so badly wrong on the floor of the House of Commons.
“It was a jaw-dropping gaffe and he should immediately apologise to the Officer and his family.
“Mr Corbyn was either poorly briefed by his staff or he’s that much out of touch with what is happening. Either way, it’s a shocking error to make and needs to be corrected.
“Our colleague is recovering after the ambush on the Crumlin Road. We welcome the expression of good wishes from the Prime Minister, which preceded Mr Corbyn’s contribution, and which more accurately reflected the mood of the House.
“We have excellent working relationships with a number of MPs and I know they will be appalled and embarrassed by Mr Corbyn’s comment”.
Red-faced Jeremy Corbyn wrongly told MPs the police officer 'lost his life'
I join the Prime Minister in expressing condolences… to the family of the police officer who lost his life
Earlier, Mrs May had opened the House of Commons session by telling MPs: "I'm sure the whole House will join me in sending our thoughts to the police officer who was shot in Belfast over the weekend and to his friends and family.
"PSNI (Police Service Northern Ireland) do a superb job in keeping us safe and secure and they have our fullest support."
Asked whether Mr Corbyn would be apologising for the blunder, a senior Labour source said: "Obviously the last thing that was intended was any offence.
“He didn't intend to say that. He meant to say he nearly died."