Opportunities were missed to spot the radicalisation of two teenage British Muslim brothers who died fighting in Syria in 2014, a report has found.
Agencies had insufficient knowledge and understanding of minority and faith groups, a serious case review said.
Abdullah and Jaffar Deghayes were in a child protection plan before 2010, the report by a senior social worker said.
But the review found their radicalisation was a “total shock and surprise” to authorities in Brighton.
Abdullah, 18, and Jaffar, 17, were both killed having followed their older brother, Amer, to Syria to fight for an Al-Queda-affiliated jihadist group.
Both boys had suffered bullying and racism, and had reported physical abuse by their father.