A wrecking amendment to the Government's Article 50 Bill, proposed by Nicola Strugeon's SNP, failed to win the support of a majority of MPs.
It was defeated by 336 votes to 100 votes.
The SNP, led by deputy leader Angus Robertson in Westminster, were joined in their opposition to Article 50 by 50 MPs from other parties.
Jeremy Corbyn saw 33 of his Labour MPs defy his order not to block Brexit, while seven Liberal Democrats, two Plaid Cymru and Green MP Caroline Lucas backed the SNP wrecking amendment.
Veteran MP Ken Clarke was the sole Conservative to vote against Brexit.
The amendment had called for MPs to refuse to endorse the proposed European Union (Notification of Withdrawal) Bill at its second reading.
The SNP argued the Government had not offered 'effective consultation' with devolved administrations in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.
They had also claimed Article 50 shouldn't be backed because the Government had offered no guarantees for the rights of EU nationals, not published a White Paper on its Brexit plans or answered a number of questions about quitting the EU's Single Market.
MPs rejected the SNP's wrecking amendment
Having survived the defeated SNP amendment, the Article 50 Bill was overwhelmingly backed at its second reading by 498 votes to 114 votes.
Commenting on the vote, SNP's Europe spokesman Stephen Gethins said: “This is a devastating act of sabotage on Scotland’s economy and our very social fabric.
"Scotland voted overwhelmingly to remain part of the EU and it is easy to see why given the jobs, investment and industries that rely so heavily on our EU membership.
“Make no mistake this is a devastating decision for the whole of the UK, everyone person who lives here – and a day that will go down in infamy.”
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After clearing the House of Commons today, the Article 50 Bill will return to MPs next week – when Labour will hope to add their own amendments – for a final vote.
It will then pass to the House of Lords, who could also try and add amendments.
If passed into law, the Bill will hand the Prime Minister the authority to trigger Article 50 and begin EU divorce talks.
It follows last week's Supreme Court judgement that ruled Theresa May must first win the consent of MPs and peers for Brexit.
The Prime Minister has promised to trigger Article 50 by the end of March, with it reported she is hoping to hand formal notification of Britain's departure to EU bosses on March 9.