Neymar was shown a second yellow card in Barcelona's 2-0 defeat against Malaga at the weekend.
The dismissal was Neymar's first during his career at Barcelona.
The usual suspension period for two yellow cards carries a one-match ban but referee Jesus Gil Manzano wrote in his report that the Brazil international had "sarcastically applauded" the fourth official as he left the pitch.
Neymar will miss matches against Real Sociedad, Real Madrid and Osasuna
Neymar was handed a three-match ban despite picking up two yellow cards
And the Royal Spanish Football Federation (RFEF) have decided the referee's report has deemed Neymar worthy of a three-match ban.
The news will come as a huge blow to Barcelona's title hopes with the Brazil international set to miss El Clasico on April 23 as well as matches against Real Socieded and Osasuna.
Barcelona will reportedly appeal the decision from the RFEF in hope of reducing the ban.
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Luis Enrique's side are currently three points behind Madrid but have played one more game than their rivals.
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The two sides couldn't be separated in the first Clasico of the season in December with Sergio Ramos scoring a late equaliser to cancel out Luis Suarez's strike.