At least one person was reported to have been injured in the fire, which broke out at around 12.09pm local time.
Firefighters rushed to put out the smoky blaze at an eight-story building on Ninth Avenue and West 15th Street, which is believed to have started in a rooftop generator.
The Chelsea Market is a large indoor food market in the borough of Manhattan, in New York City.
Fire on the rooftop of New York's Chelsea Market Live images: New York's Chelsea Market on fire Tue, March 28, 2017
A major fire has broken out on the roof of Chelsea Market at 75 Ninth Ave in New York. The entire building has been evacuated
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Smoke billowed as buildings were evacuated
Smoke could be seen rising from the roof of the market and above office spaces throughout the neighbourhood.
Hundreds of evacuated people were left standing on the street as emergency services arrived.
Thirty-six fire units, and 126 firefighters responded to the incident, which took almost an hour to bring under control.
More than 120 firefighters were at the scene
In a statement, a Chelsea Market spokesperson said: “Today there was a minor fire within the cooling tower on the roof of Chelsea market that has been contained.
“The fire department responded immediately to the scene, and the adjacent office floors of the building were evacuated as a precaution.”