498 voted in favour of giving the Bill a second reading, with 114 against, with a majority of 384 backing the Bill.
MPs clashed during two days of debate over the European Union (Notification of Withdrawal) Bill.
Prime Minister Theresa May told MPs earlier today the vote to give the Bill a second reading would decide whether to deny the will of the British people.
The legislation allows the Prime Minister to decide when to trigger Article 50 and begin the two-year process of negotiation on Brexit.
Around 90 MPs were expected to vote against the bill – including around 48 Labour rebels.
REVEALED: Full list of 114 MPs who voted AGAINST Brexit bill in Article 50 Commons clash
The battle has only really just begun
The vote has sparked chaos for the Labour Party with shadow ministers Dawn Butler and Rachael Maskell, resigning from Jeremy Corbyn's shadow cabinet despite the Labour leader ordering his MPs to back the second reading of the Bill.
Shadow home secretary Diane Abbott, a close ally of Mr Corbyn, did not vote.
A Labour source said she was "taken ill" and left Parliament at about 5pm.
Labour rebel Ben Bradshaw said: “This is the single most important issue of any our lifetimes.”
He said he was “really worried about the implications of a hard Brexit.”
Speaking after the vote, Ken Clarke said "the battle has only really just begun".
Mr Clarke is the only Tory to vote against the Bill.
Get Quotes on Home Insurance
MPs have voted in favour of triggering Article 50
In the first vote of the night, MPs voted against the Scottish National Party amendment declining to give the Bill a second reading.
The SNP-led plot to derail Brexit was foiled as Article 50 cleared its first hurdle in Parliament in a major blow to Nicola Sturgeon.
336 MPs voted against the amendment with 100 for the SNP amendment.
The main Commons skirmishes over the legislation are expected to come during the Bill’s committee stage from Monday to Wednesday next week, when MPs will scrutinise the Bill in detail and put forward amendments for votes.
Labour amendments to the second reading which could command some support across the House include moves to ensure MPs have the first vote on any proposed exit deal.
An attempt to guarantee legal rights for EU nationals already living in the UK, moves to protect workers rights and single market access, and calls for further scrutiny have all had some level of cross-party support in recent months.
A spokesman for Mr Corbyn said: "Labour MPs voted more than three to one in favour of triggering Article 50.
"Now the battle of the week ahead is to shape Brexit negotiations to put jobs, living standards and accountability centre stage.
"Labour's amendments are the real agenda.
"The challenge is for MPs of all parties to ensure the best deal for Britain, and that doesn't mean giving Theresa May a free hand to turn Britain into a bargain basement tax haven."
The Liberal Democrats' main aim is to ensure a second referendum on the final deal achieved by Theresa May and they will vote against triggering Article 50 if they cannot achieve it.
The Scottish National Party, which is opposed to Brexit, is expected to table dozens of amendments to the second reading.
498 voted in favour of giving the Bill a second reading, with 114 against
Speaker John Bercow delacred "The Ayes have it, the Ayes have it"
Remain-backers and ultra-Eurosceptics on the Tory backbenches could also attempt to change the Bill.
But with the majority of the Labour Party fundamentally supporting the triggering of Article 50 by April in line with the Prime Minister's timetable, she will be confident of getting the Bill through relatively unscathed.
The third reading, the Bill's final Commons stage, is also expected on Wednesday February 8, giving MPs final chance to say whether they approve of the Bill before it passes to the House of Lords, where the stages are repeated.
MPs vote 498 to 114 to approve the Second Reading of the European Union (Notification of Withdrawal) Bill. pic.twitter.com/jgqy7rnw2i
— House of Commons (@HouseofCommons) February 1, 2017
MPs vote against the reasoned amendment to the Second Reading of the EU (Notification of Withdrawal) Bill by 336 to 100. pic.twitter.com/2Ae7BoiUnO
— House of Commons (@HouseofCommons) February 1, 2017
The Government could find life more tricky in the upper chamber, where the Bill will be introduced on February 20, because it does not have a majority.
Labour in the Lords has already said it will examine but not block the Government's Brexit plans, although some individual peers are likely to register their opposition.
But the Lib Dems, who are determined to guarantee of a fresh referendum on the final deal, have 102 peers compared to 253 Tories out of a total 805.
The Bill is expected to complete its passage through the Lords by Tuesday March 7 but if peers have made amendments, it will return to the Commons, where MPs will debate whether to keep the changes or get rid of them.
This procedure, known as "ping-pong", would see the Bill repeatedly move between the Commons and the Lords until an agreement is reached on the final text.
Ping-pong seems the most likely stage for the Bill to be held up as peers could become emboldened with time running out for the Government to hit its timetable.
But members in both Houses will be acutely aware that appearing to frustrate the progress of the Bill would risk accusations that they are going against the will of the people expressed in last year's referendum.
And peers have also been warned to "tread carefully" and not seek to delay the Bill, given they are unelected parliamentarians.
In the third vote of the night, MPs voted 329 to 112 to approve the Programme Motion of the Bill setting out the three-day timetable for the rest of the Bill.
Theresa May's 12 point Brexit plan
Mon, January 16, 2017
It's finally here!
1 of 7
Continued cooperation with the EU to tackle terrorism and international crime.
Tory MP Chloe Smith took her baby into the chamber to vote.
Speaker John Bercow told her she was free to bring the child in, prompting Iain Duncan Smith to ask “Does that count as two votes?”
More than 20 Labour MPs indicated during the two-day debate that they would defy orders from leader Jeremy Corbyn to vote against the Bill.
Ministers were forced to bring forward the proposed legislation after the Supreme Court ruled that Parliament's approval is needed before the Brexit withdrawal process can begin.
The Government wants this to start before the end of March.