The scheme, named after its architect, Labour peer Lord Dubs, will be capped once another 150 unaccompanied children are brought to Britain, on top of the 200 already in the UK.
Branding the decision "truly shameful", more than 200 figures including Carey Mulligan, Gary Lineker, Keira Knightley, Benedict Cumberbatch and Ralph Fiennes have signed an open letter to Theresa May.
Juliet Stevenson said that if Theresa May put the decision to end the lone child refugee scheme to a referendum, people would vote to keep it in place.
"I have been chasing people to see if they are interested in putting their name to it, and there is not a single person who has refused," she said.
Juliet Stevenson said that people would vote to keep the lone child scheme in place
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I have been chasing people to see if they are interested in putting their name to it, and there is not a single person who has refused
"People who don't normally stand up, people who don't normally put their head above the parapet, who don't normally get politically involved – all sorts of people who just want now to stand up and say okay, enough is enough.
The letter, backed by Help Refugees and Citizen UK's Safe Passage programme, says it is "completely unacceptable" to "slam the door shut after just 350 children have reached safety".
"Lord Dubs was himself a child saved by Sir Nicholas Winton who rescued 669 children virtually single-handed," it reads.
"It is embarrassing that the Prime Minister's entire Government will not even manage to match the example set by her former constituent all those years ago, let alone the efforts of the Kindertransport movement of which he was a part which saved 10,000 children from the Nazis."
Stevenson has been chasing people to see if they are interested
There has been strong criticism of the Government since it announced earlier this month that it will scrap the programme for resettling lone youngsters from mainland Europe to the UK.
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Although the Government had not committed to any specific number, campaigners and opposition figures have previously called for 3,000 children to be given sanctuary.
The letter comes days after the Home Office said that due to a lack of places for vulnerable child refugees identified by local authorities, the scheme would finish at the end of the financial year.
Among those to sign the letter are Coldplay, Juliet Stevenson, Gok Wan, Caroline Flack, Jude Law, Michael Morpurgo, Douglas Booth, Joely Richardson, Lily Allen, Sir Mark Rylance and Ruby Wax.
Children of the Refugee Crisis Tue, September 20, 2016
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Caroline Flack, among others, signed the letter
Rabbi Janet Darley, of Citizen UK's Safe Passage programme, also welcomed the "intervention by this broad range of public figures".
"Shutting the door on refugee children leaves them with a terrible choice of train tracks on the one hand and people traffickers on the other," she said.
On Saturday, flanked by a group of children, local politicians and faith leaders, Lord Dubs delivered a 50,000-signature petition to 10 Downing Street, accusing the Government of a "very shabby cop-out".
A Home Office spokesman said: "We are not giving up on vulnerable children who are fleeing conflict and danger.
Jude Law also signed the letter
"The reality is that just in the last two weeks more than 300 refugees have arrived in the UK and around half of these were children.
"It's also a fact that more than 8,000 children found shelter, security and safety in the UK in the last year.
"And it's a further fact that this Government is committed to resettling up to 3,000 vulnerable children and their families from the Mena (Middle East and North Africa) region and 20,000 Syrian refugees by the end of this parliament.
"These are the actions of a Government determined to help the most vulnerable."
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