Hamid Karazi described the use of the 11-tonne “mother of all bombs” (MOAB) as a “brutal act” against the sovereignty of Afghanistan.
It is believed more than 90 Islamic State militants were killed when the weapon was dropped on a complex of tunnels and bunkers in the east of the country on Thursday.
Trump said he was "very proud" of the operation, which saw the US use its largest conventional bomb.
Hamid Karazi was furious at Donald Trump for using the 'mother of all bombs
I very strongly believe this was an inhumane act
However, Mr Karazi, who served as Afghan president up until 2014, was left seething with the US’ deployment of such a “dangerous” weapon.
Speaking to Al Jazeera on Sunday, he fumed: “I very strongly believe this was an inhumane act, a brutal act against an innocent country, against innocent people, against our land, against our sovereignty, against our soil and against our future.
“A bomb of that magnitude has consequences for the environment, for lives, for our plants, for our water, for our soil – this is poison, a poison that will be there for years.”
The ex-Afghan leader called the bomb a 'brutal act on innocent people'
The US military has not confirmed the casualty toll of Thursday’s operation, but the Afghan government believes 92 jihadis perished.
Security forces are now reportedly trying to access the target of the attack, with the possibility the death toll could rise further.
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Mr Karazi has now called for an end of military intervention from the US in the region.
The 'mother of all bombs' is the largest non-nuclear weapon
He said: “How can we allow our country to be used this way, and why?
“How many Daesh have they killed, 100, 200? Why should Afghanistan suffer in such a massive way with a bomb so big, so dangerous, that they themselves call the ‘mother of all bombs’?"
Speaking of Thursday’s attack in Achin district in Nangarhar province, he added: “Couldn’t they have stopped them two years ago?
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“Couldn’t they have stopped their entry to the valleys for the past two-and-a-half years?
“The US must begin to be honest with us, the US stops using Afghanistan as a testing ground, the US [must] engage with the Afghan people towards a peaceful solution where we can live in our own country peacefully.”
The enraged comments were at odds with Afganistan's current president, Ashraf Ghani, who explained the bombing was necessary to help the Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF).
In a series of tweets, Mr Ghani's office wrote: "The airstrike was designed to support the efforts of the ANSF and U.S. forces as well as minimise the risk to ANSF and the U.S. forces.
"Precautions were taken to avoid civilian casualties with this airstrike."