Travellers arriving in the UK from Poland and Turkey will have to self-isolate for 14 days from 04:00 on Saturday.
It comes after a rise in the infection rate in both countries, with Poland reporting 25.9 coronavirus cases per 100,000 people, up from 15.6.
There will also be tougher fines for those who fail to self-isolate – of up to a maximum of £10,000 in England.
It comes as the UK reports a further 6,914 coronavirus cases and 59 deaths.
Announcing the changes, Transport Secretary Grant Shapps said data from Poland showed that “test positivity has nearly doubled increasing from 3.9% to 5.8% alongside a rapid increase in weekly cases”.
Arrivals from the Caribbean islands of Bonaire, St Eustatius and Saba will also have to quarantine from Saturday, he added.
It has also been announced that fines for first offence of failing to self-isolate when required will start at £1,000, before increasing to £2,000, then £4,000 and up to a maximum of £10,000 in England. The upper limit for repeat offences was previously £3,200.
The fine increase will be in force from Friday.
Since the introduction of the travel quarantine regime in the summer, police officers have investigated more than 4,000 alleged breaches of the rules.
More than 200 were found to be ignoring the quarantine requirement, but escaped a fine because they listened to the officer on their doorstep. Overall there were just 38 penalties for breaching holiday quarantine.